Coronary calcification is an important indicator of plaque accumulation on the inside lining of the coronary artery walls. This waxy plaque (which is another word for blockages) is made of fat, cholesterol and other substances. Over decades, as plaque builds up inside an artery wall, it can restrict blood flow. If not treated, this plaque can rupture suddenly and cause a blood clot that blocks blood flow. This can result in a heart attack. Risk factors for coronary calcification are: high cholesterol, high blood pressure, smoking, insulin resistance, diabetes, obesity, physical inactivity, older age and family history.